7.8 Probability and Sampling
In this unit, students understand and use the terms “event,” “sample space,” “outcome,” “chance experiment,” “probability,” “simulation,” “random,” “sample,” “random sample,” “representative sample,” “overrepresented,” “underrepresented,” “population,” and “proportion.” They design and use simulations to estimate probabilities of outcomes of chance experiments and understand the probability of an outcome as its long-run relative frequency. They represent sample spaces (that is, all possible outcomes of a chance experiment) in tables and tree diagrams and as lists. They calculate the number of outcomes in a given sample space to find the probability of a given event. They consider the strengths and weaknesses of different methods for obtaining a representative sample from a given population. They generate samples from a given population, e.g., by drawing numbered papers from a bag and recording the numbers, and examine the distributions of the samples, comparing these to the distribution of the population. They compare two populations by comparing samples from each population.