Lesson 17
Interpret Diagrams
Warmup: Estimation Exploration: Fraction of a Whole Number (10 minutes)
Narrative
The purpose of this Estimation Exploration is to estimate the product of a fraction and a large whole number. Students know how to find the exact answer but it would require many calculations. Making an estimate will help develop the intuition that because \(\frac{5}{3}\) is greater than 1, the product has to be greater than the other factor. Students can make a better estimate by replacing the whole number 9,625 with a friendlier number that they can find \(\frac{1}{3}\) of mentally. Throughout this lesson, students will continue to compare the size of products to the size of one of the factors.
Launch
 Groups of 2
 Display the expression.
 “What is an estimate that’s too high? Too low? About right?”
 1 minute: quiet think time
Activity
 1 minute: partner discussion
 Record responses.
Student Facing
\(\frac{5}{3} \times 9,\!625\)
Record an estimate that is:
too low  about right  too high 

\(\phantom{\hspace{2.5cm} \\ \hspace{2.5cm}}\)  \(\phantom{\hspace{2.5cm} \\ \hspace{2.5cm}}\)  \(\phantom{\hspace{2.5cm} \\ \hspace{2.5cm}}\) 
Student Response
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Activity Synthesis
 “How do we know the product is going to be greater than 9,625?” (\(\frac{5}{3}\) is more than 1 so the product is greater than the other factor, 9,625.)
 “How do we know the product is going to be greater than 15,000?” (\(\frac{1}{3}\times 9,\!000=3,\!000\) so \(\frac{5}{3}\times 9,\!000=15,\!000\) and we are trying to figure out what \(\frac{5}{3}\) of more than 9,000 is.)
Activity 1: Match the Diagram (20 minutes)
Narrative
The goal of this activity is for students to match expressions and diagrams and then compare the value of each expression with one of the factors. To match the expressions with the diagrams students will likely use the meaning of multiplication. For example, \(\frac{2}{7} \times 3\) means 2 of 7 equal parts of 3 wholes. The area diagram shows the 7 parts with 2 shaded whereas the number line only shows the relative locations of \(\frac{2}{7} \times 3\) and 3, requiring students to understand the relationship between \(\frac{2}{7} \times 3\) and 3 in order to pick the right match. Once they have made the matches, the diagrams help to visualize that \(\frac{2}{7} \times 3\) is less than 3 and the activity synthesis highlights this. When students match diagrams and expressions they look for and identify structure in the number line and area diagrams (MP7).
Launch
 Groups of 2
Activity
 1–2 minutes: quiet think time
 8–10 minutes: partner work time
 Monitor for students who compare the numbers by:
 finding the value of the expressions
 using the number lines which show how the value of each expression compares to 3 or 5
 using the area diagrams which also show how the value of each expression compares to 3 or 5
Student Facing

Match the expressions and diagrams.
\(\frac{2}{7} \times 3\)
\(\frac{9}{7} \times 3\)
\(\frac{2}{7} \times 5\)
\(\frac{9}{7} \times 5\)

Write \(< \) or \(> \) in each blank to make the inequality true.
 \(\frac{2}{7} \times 3\, \underline{\hspace{0.7cm}}\, 3\)
 \(\frac{9}{7} \times 3\, \underline{\hspace{0.7cm}} \,3\)
 \(\frac{2}{7} \times 5\, \underline{\hspace{0.7cm}}\, 5\)
 \(\frac{9}{7} \times 5 \, \underline{\hspace{0.7cm}}\, 5\)
Student Response
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Activity Synthesis
 Display the expression: \(\frac{2}{7} \times 3\)
 “How did you decide which diagrams match the expression?” (For the area diagram I took the rectangle with length 3 and width less than 1. For the number line, I picked the one with 3 and a point that was less than 3.)
 Invite students to share how they compared \(\frac{2}{7} \times 3\) with 3, highlighting these strategies:
 reasoning about the size of \(\frac{2}{7}\)
 using the number line
 using the area diagram
Activity 2: Who Ran Farther? (15 minutes)
Narrative
The purpose of this activity is for students to compare a product to an unknown factor based on the size of the other factor. In this case, students cannot calculate the values of the products to compare but instead rely on their understanding of fractions and the meaning of multiplication. Students also use a number line to help them visualize the different distances after listing them in order. For this part of the activity the expectation is that they will use what they already know about the order of the distances to determine which point corresponds to each student. They might, however, also reason about the quantities. For example twice Priya’s distance can be found by marking off Priya’s position on the number line a second time (MP2).
Advances: Reading, Representing
Supports accessibility for: Memory, Conceptual Processing, Attention
Launch
 Groups of 2
 1–2 minutes: quiet think time
Activity
 6–8 minutes: partner work time
Student Facing
 Priya ran to her grandmother’s house.
 Jada ran twice as far as Priya.
 Han ran \(\frac{6}{7}\) as far as Priya.
 Clare ran \(\frac{14}{8}\) as far as Priya.
 Mai ran \(\frac{3}{5}\) times as far as Priya.
 Which students ran farther than Priya?\( \underline{\hspace{5.5cm}} \)
 Which students did not run as far as Priya?\( \underline{\hspace{5.5cm}} \)
 List the runners in order from shortest distance run to longest. Explain or show your reasoning.

The point P represents how far Priya ran. Write the initial of each student in the blank that shows how far they ran. One of the students will be missing.
 Label the distance for the missing student on the number line above.
Student Response
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Activity Synthesis
 Display:
\(\frac{3}{5} \times 2\)
\(\frac{6}{7} \times 2\)
\(\frac{14}{8} \times 2\)
\(2 \times 2\)  “What do you notice about these expressions?” (They represent the amount that each person ran, if Priya’s distance is 2. They are all a number multiplied by 2. They are listed in increasing order.)
 “What if Priya ran 4 miles? What multiplication expressions can we write to represent how many miles each of the other students ran?” (It would be just like the expressions above except that the 2 would be replaced with a 4.)
 Record expressions for all to see:
\(\frac{3}{5} \times 4\)
\(\frac{5}{7} \times 4\)
\(\frac{14}{8} \times 4\)
\(2 \times 4\)  “Does the order of the distances change when Priya’s distance changes? Why or why not?” (No, the order of the products is the same as the order of the other factor, the multiple of Priya’s distance.)
Lesson Synthesis
Lesson Synthesis
“Today we compared products without calculating their values.”
Display: Han ran \(\frac{6}{7}\) as far as Priya.
“How do you know Priya ran farther than Han?” (\(\frac{6}{7}\) of Priya‘s distance is just a fraction of her distance. It's \(\frac{1}{7}\) short of the full distance Priya ran. So Priya ran farther.)
Display image showing all student distances in activity 2 or a student generated solution.
“How can you tell who ran farther than Priya?” (Clare and Jada are to the right of Priya on the number line so they ran farther.)
“In the next lesson we are going to continue to use the number line to locate and compare the values of multiplication expressions with fractions.”
Cooldown: Read Books (5 minutes)
CoolDown
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