# Lesson 8

Dividamos para multiplicar fracciones no unitarias

## Warm-up: Verdadero o falso: Una fracción por un número entero (10 minutes)

### Narrative

The purpose of this True or False is to elicit the strategies and insights students have for multiplying fractions by whole numbers. Students do not need to find the value of any of the expressions but rather can reason about properties of operations and the relationship between multiplication and division. In this lesson, they will see some ways to find the value of an expression like $$\frac{2}{3} \times 6$$.

### Launch

• Display one statement.
• “Hagan una señal cuando sepan si la afirmación es verdadera o no, y puedan explicar cómo lo saben” // “Give me a signal when you know whether the statement is true and can explain how you know.”
• 1 minute: quiet think time

### Activity

• Share and record answers and strategy.
• Repeat with each statement.

### Student Facing

Decide si cada afirmación es verdadera o falsa. Prepárate para explicar tu razonamiento.

• $$2 \times \left(\frac{1}{3} \times 6\right) = \frac{2}{3} \times 6$$
• $$2 \times \left(\frac{1}{3} \times 6\right) = 2 \times (6 \div 3)$$
• $$\frac{2}{3} \times 6 = 2 \times \left(\frac{1}{4} \times6 \right)$$

### Activity Synthesis

• “¿Cómo pueden explicar que $$\frac{2}{3} \times 6 = 2 \times (\frac{1}{4} \times6)$$ es falso sin encontrar el valor de ambos lados?” // “How can you explain why  $$\frac{2}{3} \times 6 = 2 \times (\frac{1}{4} \times6)$$ is false without finding the value of both sides?” (It can't be true because $$\frac{2}{3} \times 6=2\times\frac{1}{3}\times6$$.)

## Activity 1: Multipliquemos un número entero por una fracción (15 minutes)

### Narrative

The purpose of this activity is for students to relate multiplying a non-unit fraction by a whole number to multiplying a unit fraction by the same whole number. After finding the value of $$\frac{1}{5} \times 3$$ in a way that makes sense to them, they then consider the value of the products $$\frac{2}{5} \times 3$$ and $$\frac{3}{5} \times 3$$. In the synthesis students address how they can use the value of $$\frac{1}{5} \times 3$$ to find the value other expressions.

• Groups of 2

### Activity

• 8 minutes: independent work time
• Monitor for students who:
• draw a diagram
• use division to solve
• recognize a relationship between $$\frac{1}{5}\times3$$$$\frac{2}{5}\times3$$, and $$\frac{3}{5}\times3$$ .

### Student Facing

Encuentra el valor de cada expresión. Explica o muestra tu razonamiento. Si te ayuda, dibuja un diagrama.
1. $$\frac{1}{5} \times 3$$
2. $$\frac{2}{5} \times 3$$
3. $$\frac{3}{5} \times 3$$

### Activity Synthesis

• Ask previously selected students to share their solutions.
• Display: $$\frac{1}{5} \times 3$$, $$\frac{2}{5} \times 3$$, $$\frac{3}{5} \times 3$$
• “¿En qué se parecen las expresiones?” // “How are the expressions the same?” (They all have a 3. They all have some fifths and there is a product.)
• “¿En qué son diferentes las expresiones?” // “How are the expressions different?” (The number of fifths is different. There is 1 and then 2 and then 3.)
• “¿Cómo pueden usar el valor de $$\frac{1}{5} \times 3$$ como ayuda para encontrar el valor de $$\frac{2}{5} \times 3$$?” // “How can you use the value of $$\frac{1}{5} \times 3$$ to help find the value of $$\frac{2}{5} \times 3$$?” (I can just double the result because it’s $$\frac{2}{5}$$ instead of $$\frac{1}{5}$$.)
• “¿Y para $$\frac{3}{5} \times 3$$?” // “What about $$\frac{3}{5} \times 3$$?” (That’s just another $$\frac{1}{5} \times 3$$.)
• Display diagram from student solution or a student generated diagram like it.
• “¿De qué manera el diagrama muestra $$\frac{1}{5} \times 3$$?” // “How does the diagram show $$\frac{1}{5} \times 3$$?” (There is 3 total and $$\frac{1}{5}$$ of it is shaded.)
• Display: $$\frac{2}{5} \times 3$$.
• “¿Cómo podrían adaptar el diagrama para mostrar $$\frac{2}{5} \times 3$$?” // “How could you adapt the diagram to show $$\frac{2}{5} \times 3$$?” (I could fill in 2 of the fifths in each whole instead of 1.)
• “En la siguiente actividad, vamos a estudiar un diagrama para $$\frac{2}{5} \times 3$$” // “In the next activity we will study a diagram for $$\frac{2}{5} \times 3$$ more.”

## Activity 2: Emparejemos expresiones con diagramas (20 minutes)

### Narrative

The purpose of this activity is to interpret diagrams in multiple ways, focusing on different multiplication and division expressions. The repeating structure in the diagrams allows for many different ways to find the value and interpret the meaning of the expressions. Encourage students to use words, diagrams, or expressions to explain how the diagram represents each of the expressions.

Monitor for students who:

• can explain that the diagram represents the multiplication expression $$3 \times \frac{2}{5}$$ because it shows 3 groups of $$\frac{2}{5}$$
• can explain that the diagram represents $$2 \times (3 \div 5)$$ because there are 3 wholes divided into 5 equal pieces and 2 of the pieces in each whole are shaded
• can explain how the diagram represents the relationship between $$\frac{6}{5}$$ and $$2 \times (3 \div 5)$$

This activity gives students an opportunity to generalize their learning about fractions, division and multiplication. Students see shaded diagrams in different ways, representing different operations, and begin to see the operations as a convenient way to represent complex calculations (MP8).

Engagement: Provide Access by Recruiting Interest. Provide choice. Invite students to decide which expression to start with.
Supports accessibility for: Visual-Spatial Processing, Conceptual Processing, Attention

• Groups of 2

### Activity

• 5–10 minutes: partner work time

MLR2 Collect and Display

• Circulate, listen for, and collect the language students use to describe how each part of the expression represents each part of the diagram.
• Listen for language described in the narrative.
• Look for notes, labels, and markings on the diagrams that connect the parts of the diagram to the parts of the expressions.
• Record students’ words and phrases on a visual display and update it throughout the lesson.

### Student Facing

1. $$2 \times (3 \div 5)$$

2. $$\frac{6}{5}$$

3. $$3 \times \frac{2}{5}$$

4. $$3 \times 2 \times \frac{1}{5}$$

### Student Response

If students do not choose any expressions that represent the diagram, ask them to describe the diagram. Write down the words and phrases they use and ask, “¿Cuáles expresiones representan las palabras que usaste para describir el diagrama?” // “Which expressions represent the words you used to describe the diagram?”

### Activity Synthesis

• Display the expression: $$3 \times \frac{2}{5}$$
• “¿De qué manera el diagrama representa la expresión?” // “How does the diagram represent the expression?” (It shows 3 groups of $$\frac{2}{5}$$.)
• Display the expression: $$2 \times (3 \div 5)$$
• “¿De qué manera el diagrama representa la expresión?” // “How does the diagram represent the expression?”
• Display: $$2 \times (3 \div 5)=\frac{6}{5}$$
• “¿Cómo sabemos que esto es cierto?” // “How do we know this is true?” (We can see both of them in the diagram. $$3\div5$$ is the same as $$\frac{3}{5}$$ and $$2\times\frac{3}{5}=\frac{6}{5}$$
• “¿Qué otras palabras, frases o diagramas importantes deberíamos incluir en nuestra presentación?” // “Are there any other words, phrases, or diagrams that are important to include on our display?”
• As students share responses, update the display, by adding (or replacing) language, diagrams, or annotations.
• Remind students to borrow language from the display as needed.

## Lesson Synthesis

### Lesson Synthesis

Revisit the chart about the relationship between multiplication and division created in an earlier lesson.

“¿Qué le agregarían o ajustarían a lo que ya hay sobre la relación entre la multiplicación y la división?” // “What would you add to or revise about the relationship between multiplication and division?”

Revise chart as necessary.

## Student Section Summary

### Student Facing

En esta sección, exploramos la relación entre la multiplicación y la división. Aprendimos que un diagrama puede representar expresiones de multiplicación y expresiones de división. Por ejemplo, podemos interpretar este diagrama usando 4 expresiones diferentes:

•  $$\frac{3}{4}$$, porque cada rectángulo está dividido en 4 partes iguales y hay 3 sombreadas en total.
•  $$3 \times \frac{1}{4}$$, porque hay 3 partes sombreadas y cada una es $$\frac{1}{4}$$ del rectángulo.
•  $$3 \div 4$$, porque hay 3 rectángulos y cada uno está dividido en 4 partes iguales.
•  $$\frac14 \times 3$$, porque hay 3 rectángulos y $$\frac{1}{4}$$ de cada uno está sombreado.

Sabemos que todas estas expresiones son iguales porque todas representan el mismo diagrama. Podemos usar cualquiera de estas expresiones para representar y resolver este problema:

• Mai se comió $$\frac{1}{4}$$ de una bolsa de 3 libras de arándanos. ¿Cuántas libras de arándanos se comió Mai?