# Lesson 4

Planning Recipes

## 4.1: A Recipe for Your Restaurant (15 minutes)

### Optional activity

The purpose of this activity is for students to apply proportional reasoning to scaling down a recipe and calculating the number of calories in one serving. In the next activity (and, if desired, in the next lesson), students will continue working with the recipe that they select in this activity.

The digital version of this activity includes nutritional information about many more ingredients than were printed in students’ books.

### Launch

If desired, explain to students that they are starting a series of activities that are based on the idea of imagining they could open their own restaurant. Provide multiple recipes for students to choose from.

Reading: MLR8 Discussion Supports. Use this routine to support student understanding of the situation. Explain the meaning of the nutritional values students must calculate, and discuss reasons why they are important factors to consider. Review directions to ensure students understand the connection between the situation and the mathematics of the task.
Design Principle(s): Support sense-making; Cultivate conversation

### Student Facing

Imagine you could open a restaurant.

1. Select a recipe for a main dish you would like to serve at your restaurant.

2. Record the amount of each ingredient from your recipe in the first two columns of the table. You may not need to use every row.

ingredient amount amount per serving calories per serving

3. How many servings does this recipe make? Determine the amount of each ingredient in one serving, and record it in the third column of the table.

4. Restaurants are asked to label how many calories are in each meal on their menu.

1. Use the information to calculate the amount of calories from each ingredient in your meal, and record it in the last column of the table.

2. Next, find the total calories in one serving of your meal.
5. If a person wants to eat 2,000 calories per day, what percentage of their daily calorie intake would one serving of your meal be?

Grains

common measure mass (g) calories fat (g) sodium (mg)
bagels 1 bagel 99 261 1.31 418
biscuit dough, refrigerated 1 biscuit 58 178 6.14 567
biscuits, dry mix 1 cup 120 514 18.48 1531
bread crumbs 1 oz 28.35 112 1.5 208
bread stuffing, dry mix 1 oz 28.35 109 0.96 398
cornbread, dry mix 1 oz 28.35 119 3.46 232
cornmeal 1 cup 157 581 2.75 11
couscous 1 cup 173 650 1.11 17
croissants 1 oz 28.35 115 5.95 132
croutons

$$\frac12$$ oz

14.2 66 2.6 155
egg noodles 1 cup 38 146 1.69 8
English muffins 1 oz 28.35 67 0.51 132
focaccia bread 1 piece 57 142 4.5 320
French bread 1 oz 28.35 77 0.69 171
frybread 1 piece 152 502 18.57 500
grits 1 tbsp 9.7 36 0.12 0
hamburger or hotdog buns 1 roll 44 123 1.72 217
millet 1 cup 200 756 8.44 10
multigrain bread 1 oz 28.35 75 1.2 108
naan bread 1 piece 90 262 5.09 418
oats 1 cup 81 307 5.28 5
pasta 1 cup 91 338 1.37 5
phyllo dough 1 oz 28.35 85 1.7 137
pie crust, refrigerated  1 crust 229 1019 58.3 937
pita bread 1 oz 28.35 8 0.34 152
potato chips 1 oz 28 149 9.51 148
potato flour 1 cup 160 571 0.54 88
pretzels 1 oz 28.35 109 0.83 352
puff pastry, frozen 1 oz 28.35 156 10.8 71
puffed rice cereal 1 cup 14 56 0.07 0
quinoa 1 cup 170 626 10.32 8
ramen noodles 1 package 81 356 14.25 1503
rice flour 1 cup 158 578 2.24 0
rice noodles 2 oz 57 207 0.32 104
rice, brown 1 cup 185 679 5.92 9
rice, white 1 cup 185 675 1.22 9
rice, wild 1 cup 160 571 1.73 11
rye flour 1 cup 128 416 2.84 3
saltine crackers 5 crackers 14.9 62 1.29 140
taco shells 1 shell 12.9 61 2.81 42
tortilla chips 1 oz 28.35 134 5.86 93
tortillas 1 tortilla 49 146 3.71 364
tostada shells 1 piece 12.3 58 2.88 81
wheat bread 1 slices 29 79 1.31 137
wheat flour 1 cup 125 455 1.22 2
wheat rolls 1 roll 28 76 1.76 147
white bread 1 slice 29 77 0.97 142
wonton wrappers 1 oz 28.35 82 0.43 162

Fruits and Vegetables

common measure mass (g) calories fat (g) sodium (mg)
acorn squash 1 cup 140 56 0.14 4
ancho peppers, dried 1 pepper 17 48 1.39 7
apple juice 1 cup 248 114 0.32 10
apple juice, frozen concentrate 6 fl oz 211 350 0.78 53
apples 1 cup 110 53 0.14 0
applesauce 1 cup 246 167 0.42 5
apricots 1 cup 155 74 0.6 2
apricots, canned 1 cup 219 182 0.24 9
artichokes 1 artichoke 128 60 0.19 120
asparagus 1 cup 134 27 0.16 3
avocados 1 cup 150 240 22 10
bamboo shoots, canned 1 cup 131 25 0.52 9
bananas 1 cup 225 200 0.74 2
beets 1 cup 136 58 0.23 106
beets, canned 1 cup 246 74 0.22 352
bell peppers, green 1 cup 149 30 0.25 4
bell peppers, red 1 cup 149 46 0.45 6
blackberries 1 cup 144 62 0.71 1
blueberries 1 cup 148 84 0.49 1
blueberries, frozen 1 cup 155 79 0.99 2
broccoli 1 cup 91 31 0.34 30
broccoli, frozen 10 oz 95 28 0.32 16
brussels sprouts 1 cup 88 38 0.26 22
brussels sprouts, frozen $$\frac12$$ cup 95 39 0.39 10
butternut squash 1 cup 140 63 0.14 6
cabbage $$\frac12$$ cup 35 8 0.06 6
cantaloupe 1 cup 177 60 0.34 28
carrots 1 cup 128 52 0.31 88
cauliflower 1 cup 107 27 0.3 32
celery 1 cup 101 16 0.17 81
chayote 1 cup 132 25 0.17 3
cherries 1 cup 138 87 0.28 0
chives 1 tbsp 3 1 0.02 0
clementines 1 fruit 74 35 0.11 1
coconut 1 cup 80 283 26.79 16
collards 1 cup 36 12 0.22 6
corn 1 cup 145 125 1.96 22
corn, frozen 1 cup 136 120 1.06 4
cranberries 1 cup 110 51 0.14 2
cranberries, dried $$\frac14$$ cup 40 123 0.44 2
cranberry sauce, canned 1 cup 277 440 0.42 14
cucumber 1 cup 133 16 0.21 3
currants 1 cup 112 63 0.22 1
dates 1 date 24 66 0.04 0
edamame, frozen 1 cup 118 129 5.58 7
eggplant 1 cup 82 20 0.15 2
feijoa 1 cup 243 148 1.02 7
figs 1 large 64 47 0.19 1
fruit cocktail, canned 1 cup 242 138 0.17 15
grape juice 1 cup 253 152 0.33 13
grapefruit 1 cup 230 74 0.23 0
grapes 1 cup 151 104 0.24 3
green beans 1 cup 100 31 0.22 6
green beans, canned 1 cup 135 28 0.55 362
green beans, frozen 1 cup 121 47 0.25 4
guavas 1 cup 165 112 1.57 3
hearts of palm, canned 1 cup 146 41 0.91 622
hominy, canned 1 cup 165 119 1.45 569
honeydew 1 cup 170 61 0.24 31
jalapenos 1 cup 90 26 0.33 3
jicama 1 cup 120 46 0.11 5
kale 1 cup 16 8 0.15 6
leeks 1 cup 89 54 0.27 18
lemon juice 1 cup 244 54 0.59 2
lemon peel 1 tbsp 6 3 0.02 0
lemonade, frozen concentrate 1 fl oz 36.5 72 0.26 3
lemons 1 cup 212 61 0.64 4
lettuce, butterhead 1 cup 55 7 0.12 3
lettuce, green leaf 1 cup 36 5 0.05 10
lettuce, iceberg 1 cup 72 10  0.1 7
lettuce, red leaf 1 cup 28 4 0.06 7
lettuce, romaine 1 cup 47 8 0.14 4
limes 1 lime 67 20 0.13 1
Mandarin oranges, canned 1 cup 252 154 0.25 15
mangoes 1 cup 165 99 0.63 2
maraschino cherries 1 cherry 5 8 0.01 0
mashed potatoes, dehydrated flakes 1 cup 60 212 0.25 46
mushrooms 1 cup 70 15 0.24 4
nopales 1 cup 86 14 0.08 18
okra 1 cup 100 33 0.19 7
olives, canned 1 tbsp 8.4 10 0.9 62
onions 1 cup 160 64 0.16 6
onions, frozen, chopped 10 oz 95 28 0.1 11
orange juice 1 cup 249 122 0.3 5
orange juice, frozen concentrate 1 cup 262 388 0.66 18
orange peel 1 tbsp 6 6 0.01 0
oranges 1 cup 180 85 0.22 0
papayas 1 cup 145 62 0.38 12
parsnips 1 cup 133 100 0.4 13
peaches 1 cup 154 60 0.38 0
peaches, canned 1 cup 251 136 0.08 13
pears 1 cup 140 80 0.2 1
pears, canned 1 cup 251 143 0.08 13
peas 1 cup 145 117 0.58 7
peas, frozen 1 cup 134 103 0.54 145
pickles, dill 1 spear 35 4 0.1 283
pickles, sweet 1 cup 160 146 0.66 731
pineapple 1 cup 165 82 0.2 2
pineapple, canned 1 cup 181 109 0.2 2
plantains 1 cup 148 181 0.55 6
plums 1 cup 165 76 0.46 0
pomegranate juice 1 cup 1249 134 0.72 22
pomegranates $$\frac12$$ cup 87 72 1.02 3
portabella mushrooms 1 cup 86 19 0.3 8
potatoes, frozen hash browns $$\frac12$$ cup 105 86 0.65 23
potatoes, red $$\frac12$$ cup 75 52 0.11 14
potatoes, russet $$\frac12$$ cup 75 59 0.06 4
prickly pears 1 unit 149 61 0.76 7
pumpkin 1 cup 116 30 0.12 1
pumpkin, canned 1 cup 245 83 0.69 12
radishes 1 cup 116 19 0.12 45
raisins 1 cup 165 493 0.76 18
raspberries 1 cup 123 64 0.8 1
rhubarb 1 cup 122 26 0.24 5
sauerkraut  1 cup 142 27 0.2 939
serrano peppers 1 cup 105 34 0.46 10
shallots 1 tbsp 10 7 0.01 1
shiitake mushrooms 1 piece 19 6 0.09 2
soybeans 1 cup 256 376 17.41 38
spinach 1 cup 30 7 0.12 24
spinach, frozen 1 cup 156 45 0.89 115
strawberries 1 cup 152 49 0.46 2
strawberries, frozen 1 cup 221 77 0.24 4
summer squash 1 cup 113 18 0.2 2
sweet onions 1 serving 148 47 0.12 12
sweet potato 1 cup 133 114 0.07 73
sweet potato, canned 1 cup 196 212 0.63 76
Swiss chard 1 cup 36 7 0.07 77
tangerines 1 cup 195 103 0.6 4
taro 1 cup 104 116 0.21 11
tomatillos 1 tomatillo 34 11 0.35 0
tomato juice, canned 1 cup 243 41 0.7 615
tomato sauce, canned 1 cup 245 59 0.74 1161
tomato soup, canned, condensed 1 cup 148 98 0.65 558
tomatoes 1 cup 149 27 0.3 7
tomatoes, sun-dried 1 cup 54 139 1.6 58
turnip greens 1 cup 55 18 0.16 22
turnips 1 cup 130 36 0.13 87
water chestnuts, canned $$\frac12$$ cup 70 35 0.04 6
watermelon 1 cup 154 46 0.23 2
winter squash 1 cup 116 39 0.15 5
yams 1 cup 150 177 0.26 14
zucchini 1 cup 124 21 0.4 10

Meat

common measure mass (g) calories fat (g) sodium (mg)
bacon 1 slice 26 106 10.21 122
bratwurst 2.33 oz 66 196 17.38 560
chicken leg 3 oz 85 182 13.56 71
chicken thigh 1 piece 193 427 32.06 156
chicken wing 1 piece 107 204 13.75 90
chicken, light meat 1 lb 88 100 1.45 60
chorizo 1 oz 28.35 129 10.85 350
cod 3 oz 85 61 0.17 93
crab 3 oz 85 73 0.82 251
crayfish 3 oz 85 61 0.82 53
elk 1 oz 28.35 31 0.41 16
ground beef, 70% lean 4 oz 113 375 33.9 75
ground beef, 90% lean 4 oz 113 199 11.3 75
ground pork, 84% lean 4 oz 113 246 18.08 77
ground pork, 96% lean 4 oz 113 137 4.52 76
ground turkey, 85% lean 4 oz 85 153 10.66 46
ground turkey, 93% lean 1 oz 28.35 43 2.36 20
halibut 3 oz 85 77 1.13 58
ham 1 oz 28.35 38 1.53 319
hot dogs 1 piece 51 141 12.33 498
kielbasa 3 oz 85 276 25.19 789
lamb 1 oz 28.35 38 1.5 18
lobster 1 lobster 150 116 1.12 634
mahimahi 3 oz 85 72 0.6 75
pepperoni 3 oz 85 428 39.34 1345
pork ribs 1 rib 128 242 15.13 81
pork sausage 1 piece 25 72 6.2 185
pork tenderloin 3 oz 85 102 3 44
salmon 1 fillet 108 373 12.34 55
shrimp 3 oz 85 72 0.43 101
tofu $$\frac12$$ cup 126 98 5.25 15
trout 1 fillet 79 111 4.88 40
tuna, canned 1 oz 28.35 24 0.27 70
turkey 1 serving 85 92 2.12 105

Nuts, Beans, and Seeds

common measure mass (g) calories fat (g) sodium (mg)
almonds 1 cup 143 828 71.4 1
baked beans, canned 1 cup 254 239 0.94 871
black beans, canned 1 cup 240 218 0.7 331
black beans, dry 1 cup 194 662 2.75 10
black-eyed peas, canned 1 cup 240 185 1.32 703
black-eyed peas, dry 1 cup 167 561 2.1 27
broadbeans (fava beans), canned 1 cup 256 182 0.56 1160
broadbeans (fava beans), dry 1 cup 150 512 2.3 20
cashews 1 oz 28.35 157 12.43 3
chia seeds 1 oz 28.35 138 8.71 5
chickpeas (garbanzo beans), canned 1 cup 240 211 4.68 667
chickpeas (garbanzo beans), dry 1 cup 200 756 12.08 48
flaxseed  1 tbsp 10.3 55 4.34 3
great northern beans, canned 1 cup 262 299 1.02 969
great northern beans, dry 1 cup 183 620 2.09 26
kidney beans, canned 1 cup 256 215 1.54 758
kidney beans, dry 1 cup 184 613 1.53 44
lentils, dry 1 cup 192 676 2.04 12
lima beans, canned 1 cup 241 190 0.41 810
lima beans, frozen 1 cup 164 216 0.72 85
macadamia nuts 1 cup 134 962 101.53 7
navy beans, canned 1 cup 262 296 1.13 880
navy beans, dry 1 cup 208 701 3.12 10
peanut butter 2 tbsp 32 191 16.22 136
peanuts 1 oz 28.35 166 14.08 116
pecans 1 cup 109 753 78.45 0
pine nuts 1 cup 135 909 92.3 3
pinto beans, canned 1 cup 240 197 1.34 643
pinto beans, dry 1 cup 193 670 2.37 23
pistachios 1 cup 123 689 55.74 1
pumpkin seeds 1 cup 129 721 63.27 9
sesame seeds 1 cup 144 825 71.52 16
sunflower seeds 1 cup 46 269 23.67 4

Dairy

common measure mass (g) calories fat (g) sodium (mg)
almond milk 1 cup 262 39 2.88 186
blue cheese 1 oz 28.35 100 8.15 325
butter 1 pat 5 36 4.06 1
cheddar cheese 1 cup 132 533 43.97 862
coconut milk 1 cup 226 445 48.21 29
cottage cheese 4 oz 113 111 4.86 411
cream cheese 1 tbsp 14.5 51 4.99 46
egg white 1 large 33 17 0.06 55
egg yolk 1 large 17 55 4.51 8
eggs 1 large 50 72 4.76 71
evaporated milk 1 cup 252 270 5.04 252
feta cheese 1 cup 150 396 31.92 1376
heavy whipped cream 1 cup 120 408 43.3 32
margarine 1 tbsp 14.2 101 11.38 4
milk, 1% 1 cup 244 102 2.37 107
milk, 2% 1 cup 244 122 4.83 115
milk, skim 1 cup 245 83 0.2 103
milk, whole 1 cup 244 149 7.93 105
mozzarella cheese 1 cup 132 389 26.11 879
Parmesan cheese 1 cup 100 420 27.84 1804
powdered milk 1 cup 68 243 0.49 373
queso fresco cheese 1 cup 122 365 29.06 916
rice milk 1 cup 240 113 2.33 94
sour cream, light 1 tbsp 12 16 1.27 10
soymilk 1 cup 243 80 3.91 90
Swiss cheese 1 cup 132 519 40.91 247
yogurt 6 oz 170 107 2.64 119

Other

common measure mass (g) calories fat (g) sodium (mg)
agave syrup 1 tsp 6.9 21 0.03 0
allspice 1 tsp 1.9 5 0.17 1
baking powder 1 tsp 4.6 2 0 488
baking soda 1 tsp 4.6 0 0 1259
balsamic vinegar 1 tbsp 16 14 0 4
barbecue sauce 1 tbsp 17 29 0.11 175
basil 1 tsp 0.7 2 0.03 1
bay leaf 1 tsp 0.6 2 0.05 0
black pepper 1 tsp 2.3 6 0.07 0
brown sugar 1 tsp 3 11 0 1
canola oil 1 tbsp 14 124 14 0
chicken bouillon 1 cube 4.8 10 0.23 1152
chicken broth 1 cup 249 15 0.52 924
chili powder 1 tsp 2.7 8 0.39 77
chocolate syrup 1 cup 304 1064 27.06 1052
cilantro $$\frac14$$ cup 4 1 0.02 2
cinnamon 1 tsp 2.6 6 0.03 0
cloves 1 tsp 2.1 6 0.27 6
cocoa powder 1 cup 86 196 11.78 18
coconut oil 1 tbsp 13.6 121 13.47 0
coffee 1 fl oz 29.6 0 0.01 1
corn syrup 1 cup 341 965 0.68 211
cornstarch 1 cup 128 488 0.06 12
cream of chicken soup $$\frac12$$ cup 126 113 7.27 885
cream of mushroom soup $$\frac12$$ cup 126 100 6.68 871
cream of tartar 1 tsp 3 8 0 2
cumin 1 tsp 2.1 8 0.47 4
curry powder 1 tsp 2 6 0.28 1
dill 1 tsp 2.1 6 0.31 0
dulce de leche 1 tbsp 19 60 1.4 25
enchilada sauce $$\frac14$$ cup 56 17 0.51 306
garlic 1 clove 3 4 0.01 0.5
garlic powder 1 tsp 3.1 10 0.02 2
ginger 1 tsp 1.8 6 0.08 0
gravy, canned 1 cup 233 1 5.5 1305
honey 1 cup 339 25 0 14
horseradish 1 tsp 5 35 0.03 21
hot sauce 1 tsp 4.7 56 0.02 124
hummus 1 tbsp 15 17 1.44 57
Italian dressing 1 tbsp 14.7 35 3.1 146
jams, jellies, and preserves 1 tbsp 20 56 0.01 6
ketchup 1 tbsp 17 17 0.02 154
lard 1 tbsp 12.8 115 12.8 0
maple syrup 1 tbsp 20 52 0.01 2
marshmallows, mini 1 cup 50 159 0.1 40
mayonnaise 1 tbsp 15 103 11.67 73
molasses 1 cup 337 977 0.34 125
mustard 1 tsp 5 3 0.17 55
mustard powder 1 tsp 2 10 0.72 0
olive oil 1 tbsp 13.5 119 13.5 0
onion powder 1 tsp 2.4 8 0.02 2
onion soup mix 1 tbsp 7.5 22 0.03 602
oregano 1 tsp 1 3 0.04 0
paprika 1 tsp 2.3 6 0.3 2
parsley 1 tsp 0.5 1 0.03 2
pasta sauce $$\frac12$$ cup 132 66 2.13 577
pesto $$\frac14$$ cup 63 263 23.69 380
pizza sauce $$\frac14$$ cup 63 34 0.72 219
poultry seasoning 1 tsp 1.5 5 0.11 0
powdered sugar 1 cup  120 467 0 2
ranch dressing 1 tbsp 15 64 6.68 135
rosemary 1 tsp 1.2 4 0.18 1
sage 1 tsp 0.7 2 0.09 0
salsa 2 tbsp 36 10 0.06 256
salt 1 tsp 6 0 0 2325
shortening 1 tbsp 12.8 113 12.8 0
soy sauce 1 tbsp 16 8 0.09 879
sugar 1 packet 2.8 11 0 0
sweet and sour sauce 2 tbsp 35 52 0.01 130
taco seasoning 2 tsp 5.7 18 0 411
tartar sauce 2 tbsp 30 63 5.01 200
tea, black 1 fl oz 29.6 0 0 1
tea, green 1 cup 245 2 0 0
teriyaki sauce 1 tbsp 18 16 0 690
thyme 1 tsp 1 3 0.07 1
vanilla extract 1 tsp 4.2 12 0 0
vegetable broth 1 cup 221 11 0.15 654
vinegar 1 tbsp 14.9 3 0 0
wasabi 1 tbsp 20 58 2.18 678
water 1 fl oz 29.6 0 0 1
watercress 1 cup 34 4 0.03 14
Worcestershire sauce 1 tbsp 17 13 0 167
yeast 1 tsp 4 13 0.3 2

### Launch

If desired, explain to students that they are starting a series of activities that are based on the idea of imagining they could open their own restaurant. Provide multiple recipes for students to choose from.

Reading: MLR8 Discussion Supports. Use this routine to support student understanding of the situation. Explain the meaning of the nutritional values students must calculate, and discuss reasons why they are important factors to consider. Review directions to ensure students understand the connection between the situation and the mathematics of the task.
Design Principle(s): Support sense-making; Cultivate conversation

### Student Facing

Imagine you could open a restaurant.

1. Select a recipe for a main dish you would like to serve at your restaurant.

2. Record the amount of each ingredient from your recipe in the first two columns of the table. You may not need to use every row.

ingredient amount amount
per serving
calories
per serving
3. How many servings does this recipe make? Determine the amount of each ingredient in one serving, and record it in the third column of the table.

4. Restaurants are asked to label how many calories are in each meal on their menu.

1. Use the nutrition information to calculate the amount of calories from each ingredient in your meal, and record it in the last column of the table.

2. Next, find the total calories in one serving of your meal.
5. If a person wants to eat 2,000 calories per day, what percentage of their daily calorie intake would one serving of your meal be?

Grains

mass (g) calories fat (g) sodium (mg)
biscuits, refrigerated dough (1) 58 178 6.14 567
bread crumbs (1 oz) 28.35 112 1.5 208
cornmeal (1 c) 157 581 2.75 11
egg noodles (1 c) 38 146 1.69 8
hamburger or hotdog buns (1) 44 123 1.72 217
oats (1 c) 81 307 5.28 5
pasta (1 c) 91 338 1.37 5
pie crust, refrigerated (1) 229 1019 58.3 937
pita bread (1 oz) 28.35 8 0.34 152
quinoa (1 c) 170 626 10.32 8
ramen noodles (1 pkg) 81 356 14.25 1503
rice flour (1 c) 158 578 2.24 0
rice, brown (1 c) 185 679 5.92 9
rice, white (1 c) 185 675 1.22 9
saltine crackers (5) 14.9 62 1.29 140
taco shells (1) 12.9 61 2.81 42
tortillas (1) 49 146 3.71 364
wheat bread (1 slice) 29 79 1.31 137
wheat flour (1 c) 125 455 1.22 2
white bread (1 slice) 29 77 0.97 142

Vegetables

mass (g) calories fat (g) sodium (mg)
asparagus (1 c) 134 27 0.16 3
avocados (1 c) 150 240 22 10
bell peppers (1 c) 149 46 0.45 6
broccoli (1 c) 91 31 0.34 30
carrots (1 c) 128 52 0.31 88
cauliflower (1 c) 107 27 0.3 32
celery (1 c) 101 16 0.17 81
chives (1 tbsp) 3 1 0.02 0
corn (1 c) 145 125 1.96 22
cucumber (1 c) 133 16 0.21 3
green beans (1 c) 100 31 0.22 6
lettuce (1 c) 47 8 0.14 7
mushrooms (1 c) 70 15 0.24 4
onions (1 c) 160 64 0.16 6
peas, frozen (1 c) 134 103 0.54 145
potatoes ($$\frac12$$ c) 75 59 0.11 14
spinach (1 c) 30 7 0.12 24
squash (1 c) 113 18 0.2 2
sweet potatoes (1 c) 133 114 0.07 73
tomatoes (1 c) 149 27 0.3 7

Fruit

mass (g) calories fat (g) sodium (mg)
apple juice (1 c) 248 114 0.32 10
apples (1 c) 110 53 0.14 0
bananas (1 c) 225 200 0.74 2
blueberries (1 c) 148 84 0.49 1
cantaloupe (1 c) 177 60 0.34 28
cherries (1 c) 138 87 0.28 0
cranberries, dried ($$\frac14$$ c) 40 123 0.44 2
grapes (1 c) 151 104 0.24 3
lemon juice (1 c) 244 54 0.59 2
Mandarin oranges (1 c) 252 154 0.25 15
mangoes (1 c) 165 99 0.63 2
orange juice (1 c) 249 122 0.3 5
oranges (1 c) 180 85 0.22 0
peaches (1 c) 154 60 0.38 0
pears (1 c) 140 80 0.2 1
pineapple, canned (1 c) 181 109 0.2 2
pomegranate juice (1 c) 1249 134 0.72 22
raisins (1 c) 165 493 0.76 18
raspberries (1 c) 123 64 0.8 1
strawberries (1 c) 152 49 0.46 2

Meat

mass (g) calories fat (g) sodium (mg)
bacon (1 slice) 26 106 10.21 122
chicken thigh (1) 193 427 32.06 156
chicken, light meat (3 oz) 85 100 1.45 60
cob (3 oz) 85 61 0.17 93
crab (3 oz) 85 73 0.82 251
ground beef (4 oz) 113 375 33.9 75
ground turkey (4 oz) 113 172 9.44 80
halibut (3 oz) 85 77 1.13 58
ham (1 oz) 28.35 38 1.53 319
hot dogs (1) 51 141 12.33 498
lobster (1) 150 116 1.12 634
pepperoni (3 oz) 85 428 39.34 1345
pork sausage (1) 25 72 6.2 185
pork tenderloin (3 oz) 85 102 3 44
salmon (1 fillet) 108 373 12.34 55
shrimp (3 oz) 85 72 0.43 101
tofu ($$\frac12$$ c) 126 98 5.25 15
trout (1 fillet) 79 111 4.88 40
tuna, canned (1 oz) 28.35 24 0.27 70
turkey (3 oz) 85 92 2.12 105

Nuts, Beans, and Seeds

mass (g) calories fat (g) sodium (mg)
almonds (1 c) 143 828 71.4 1
black beans (1 c) 240 218 0.7 331
cashews (1 oz) 28.35 157 12.43 3
chickpeas (1 c) 240 211 4.68 667
coconut (1 c) 80 283 26.8 16
fava beans (1 c) 256 182 0.56 1160
flaxseed  (1 tbsp) 10.3 55 4.34 3
white beans (1 c) 262 299 1.02 969
kidney beans (1 c) 256 215 1.54 758
lentils (1 c) 192 676 2.04 12
lima beans (1 c) 164 216 0.72 85
macadamia nuts (1 c) 134 962 101.53 7
peanut butter (2 tbsp) 32 191 16.22 136
peanuts (1 oz) 28.35 166 14.08 116
pecans (1 c) 109 753 78.45 0
pinto beans (1 c) 240 197 1.34 643
pistachios (1 c) 123 689 55.74 1
pumpkin seeds (1 c) 129 721 63.27 9
sesame seeds (1 c) 144 825 71.52 16
sunflower seeds (1 c) 46 269 23.67 4

Dairy

mass (g) calories fat (g) sodium (mg)
almond milk (1 c) 262 39 2.88 186
blue cheese (1 oz) 28.35 100 8.15 325
butter (1 pat) 5 36 4.06 1
cheddar cheese (1 c) 132 533 43.97 862
coconut milk (1 c) 226 445 48.21 29
cream cheese (1 tbsp) 14.5 51 4.99 46
egg white (1) 33 17 0.06 55
egg yolk (1) 17 55 4.51 8
eggs (1) 50 72 4.76 71
evaporated milk (1 c) 252 270 5.04 252
whipping cream (1 c) 120 408 43.3 32
margarine (1 tbsp) 14.2 101 11.38 4
milk, skim (1 c) 245 83 0.2 103
milk, whole (1 c) 244 149 7.93 105
mozzarella cheese (1 c)  132 389 26.11 879
Parmesan cheese (1 c) 100 420 27.84 1804
sour cream (1 tbsp) 12 16 1.27 10
soy milk (1 c) 243 80 3.91 90
Swiss cheese (1 c) 132 519 40.91 247
yogurt (6 oz) 170 107 2.64 119

Sauces and Other Liquids

mass (g) calories fat (g) sodium (mg)
barbecue sauce (1 tbsp) 17 29 0.11 175
chicken broth (1 c) 249 15 0.52 924
cream of chicken soup ($$\frac12$$ c) 126 113 7.27 885
gravy (1 c) 233 1 5.5 1305
honey (1 c) 339 25 0 14
Italian dressing (1 tbsp) 14.7 35 3.1 146
jams and jellies (1 tbsp) 20 56 0.01 6
ketchup (1 tbsp) 17 17 0.02 154
mayonnaise (1 tbsp) 15 103 11.67 73
mustard (1 tsp) 5 3 0.17 55
pasta sauce ($$\frac12$$ c) 132 66 2.13 577
ranch dressing (1 tbsp) 15 64 6.68 135
salsa (2 tbsp) 36 10 0.06 256
soy sauce (1 tbsp) 16 8 0.09 879
vanilla extract (1 tsp) 4.2 12 0 0
vegetable broth (1 c) 221 11 0.15 654
vegetable oil (1 tbsp) 14 124 14 0
vinegar (1 tbsp) 15 3 0 0
water (1 fl oz) 29.6 0 0 1
Worcestershire sauce (1 tbsp) 17 13 0 167

Spices and Other Powders

mass (g) calories fat (g) sodium (mg)
baking powder (1 tsp) 4.6 2 0 488
baking soda (1 tsp) 4.6 0 0 1259
black pepper (1 tsp) 2.3 6 0.07 0
chicken bouillon (1 cube) 4.8 10 0.23 1152
chili powder (1 tsp) 2.7 8 0.39 77
cinnamon (1 tsp) 2.6 6 0.03 0
cocoa powder (1 c) 86 196 11.78 18
cornstarch (1 c) 128 488 0.06 12
cumin (1 tsp) 2.1 8 0.47 4
garlic (1 clove) 3 4 0.01 0.5
garlic powder (1 tsp) 3.1 10 0.02 2
onion powder (1 tsp) 2.4 8 0.02 2
onion soup mix (1 tbsp) 7.5 22 0.03 602
oregano (1 tsp) 1 3 0.04 0
paprika (1 tsp) 2.3 6 0.3 2
parsley (1 tsp) 0.5 1 0.03 2
powdered sugar (1 c) 120 467 0 2
salt (1 tsp) 6 0 0 2325
sugar (1 tsp) 2.8 11 0 0
taco seasoning (2 tsp) 5.7 18 0 411

### Student Facing

#### Are you ready for more?

The labels on packaged foods tell how much of different nutrients they contain. Here is what some different food labels say about their sodium content.

• cheese crackers, 351 mg, 14% daily value
• apple chips, 15 mg, <1% daily value
• granola bar, 82 mg, 3% daily value

Estimate the maximum recommended amount of sodium intake per day (100% daily value). Explain your reasoning.

### Anticipated Misconceptions

When calculating the amount of calories from each ingredient, some students may struggle with converting between the units in their recipes and the units given in the tables of nutritional information. Consider displaying conversion information that your students may find helpful, for example 1 cup = 16 tablespoons.

Some students’ recipes may include an ingredient for which the nutrition information is not listed in their books. Help them research the needed information, either from the digital version of this activity or other websites.

### Activity Synthesis

Ask students to trade with a partner and check each other’s work. Poll the class on the amount of calories in one serving of their meal.

• “What was the most difficult part of calculating the amount of calories in one serving of your meal?”
• “Did anything surprise you while you were doing your calculations?”

## 4.2: Health Claims (20 minutes)

### Optional activity

The purpose of this activity is for students to apply proportional reasoning to calculate the calories, fat, and sodium content of one serving of a recipe.

### Launch

Tell students they will continue using the tables of nutrition information from the previous activity. Point out that the qualifications for a food to be considered “low calorie,” “low fat,” or “low sodium” are all stated per 100 grams of food. Before students start working, consider giving them 30 seconds of quiet think time and then having them share their ideas on how they could solve the first problem.

Representation: Internalize Comprehension. Activate or supply background knowledge. Allow students to use calculators to ensure inclusive participation in the activity.
Supports accessibility for: Memory; Conceptual processing

### Student Facing

For a meal to be considered:

• “low calorie”—it must have 120 calories or less per 100 grams of food.
• “low fat”—it must have 3 grams of fat or less per 100 grams of food.
• “low sodium”—it must have 140 milligrams of sodium or less per 100 grams of food.
1. Does the meal you chose in the previous activity meet the requirements to be considered:

1. low calorie?

2. low fat?

3. low sodium?

Be prepared to explain your reasoning.

2. Select or invent another recipe you would like to serve at your restaurant that does meet the requirements to be considered either low calorie, low fat, or low sodium. Show that your recipe meets that requirement. Organize your thinking so it can be followed by others.

ingredient amount
per serving
calories
per serving
fat
per serving
sodium
per serving

### Anticipated Misconceptions

Some students may find the total calories, fat, and sodium in one serving of their recipe and ignore the specification about per 100 grams of food. Prompt them to tabulate the grams of each ingredient in one serving of their recipe.

### Activity Synthesis

Ask students to take turns explaining to a partner how they know that their meal meets the requirements to be considered either “low calorie,” “low fat,” or “low sodium.” If time permits, consider using MLR 1 (Stronger and Clearer Each Time).