The previous lesson examines the impact of rotations on line segments and polygons. This lesson focuses on the effects of rigid transformations on lines. In particular, students see that parallel lines are taken to parallel lines and that a \(180^\circ\) rotation about a point on the line takes the line to itself. In grade 7, students found that vertical angles have the same measure, and they justify that here using a \(180^\circ\) rotation.
As they investigate how \(180^\circ\) rotations influence parallel lines and intersecting lines, students are looking at specific examples but their conclusions hold for all pairs of parallel or intersecting lines. No special properties of the two intersecting lines are used so the \(180^\circ\) rotation will show that vertical angles have the same measure for any pair of vertical angles.
This lesson is the first time students see the term vertical angles in IM 6–8 Math Accelerated. They learn that vertical angles are two angles with the same measure formed by two intersecting lines and use transformations to understand why these pairs of angles have the same measure. If students need additional practice identifying vertical angles, use the lesson synthesis to display this image and ask students to identify four pairs of vertical angles. In particular, students may have trouble seeing that angles \(FJI\) and \(HJG\) are vertical angles.
- Comprehend that a rotation by 180 degrees about a point of two intersecting lines moves each angle to the angle that is vertical to it.
- Describe (orally and in writing) observations of lines and parallel lines under rigid transformations, including lines that are taken to lines and parallel lines that are taken to parallel lines.
- Draw and label rigid transformations of a line and explain the relationship between a line and its image under the transformation.
- Generalize (orally) that “vertical angles” are congruent using informal arguments about 180 degree rotations of lines.
Let’s transform some lines.
- I can describe the effects of a rigid transformation on a pair of parallel lines.
- If I have a pair of vertical angles and know the angle measure of one of them, I can find the angle measure of the other.
Vertical angles are opposite angles that share the same vertex. They are formed by a pair of intersecting lines. Their angle measures are equal.
For example, angles \(AEC\) and \(DEB\) are vertical angles. If angle \(AEC\) measures \(120^\circ\), then angle \(DEB\) must also measure \(120^\circ\).
Angles \(AED\) and \(BEC\) are another pair of vertical angles.
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