K.4 Understanding Addition and Subtraction
Unit Goals
 Students relate counting to addition and solve addition and subtraction story problems within 10.
Section A Goals
 Understand addition as putting together and subtraction as taking from.
Section B Goals
 Represent and solve Add To, Result Unknown and Take From, Result Unknown story problems within 10.
Section C Goals
 Find the value of addition and subtraction expressions within 10.
 Relate addition and subtraction expressions to story problems.
Section A: Count to Add and Subtract
Problem 1
There are
squares.
There are
triangles.
There are
shapes.
Solution
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Problem 2
There are
shapes.
There are
squares.
There are
triangles.
Solution
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Problem 3
Count out 4 counters.
Add 1 more.
There are
counters.
Count out 6 counters.
Add 1 more.
There are
counters.
Count out 8 counters.
Add 1 more.
There are
counters.
Solution
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Problem 4
Count out 8 counters.
Take away 2 counters.
There are
counters.
Count out 6 counters.
Take away 2 counters.
There are
counters.
Count out 4 counters.
Take away 2 counters.
There are
counters.
Solution
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Problem 5
Exploration
Start with a full 5frame.
Player 1 rolls a cube on the number mat and takes away or adds that number of counters while player 2 is not looking.
Then player 2 figures out what player 1 did.
Players take turns switching roles.
Solution
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Problem 6
Exploration
Roll a cube onto a number mat.
Count out that number of counters.
Roll a cube again onto the number mat.
Count out that number of counters.
How many counters do you have in all?
Solution
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Problem 7
Exploration
Pick a number from the list to put in the blank space.
2
7
6
3
Then try the problem you made.
Count out 8 counters.
Take away \(\underline{\hspace{1 cm}}\) counters.
How many counters are left?
After you try the problem you made, try it again with a different number in the blank space.
Do you think your answer will be the same or different?
Explain.
Solution
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Section B: Represent and Solve Story Problems
Problem 1
Tell your partner a story using the picture.
Solution
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Problem 2
Show what happens in the story with counters.
There are 5 snails crawling in the grass.
Then 3 snails came to join them.
Then 2 of the snails crawled away.
Solution
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Problem 3
Jada has 5 connecting cubes.
Han gives Jada 2 more connecting cubes.
How many connecting cubes does Jada have now?
Solution
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Problem 4
There were 8 cars in the parking lot.
All 8 of the cars left after school.
How many cars are in the parking lot now?
Solution
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Problem 5
There were 9 crabs on the beach.
Then 5 of them scurried away into the ocean.
How many crabs are on the beach now?
Solution
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Problem 6
There are 4 cups of milk on the table.
Jada puts 2 more cups of milk on the table.
How many cups are on the table altogether?
Make a drawing to show the story.
Solution
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Problem 7
There are 7 crows in the tree.
Then 3 more crows fly into the tree.
How many crows are in the tree altogether?
Show your thinking using drawings, numbers, words, or objects.
Solution
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Problem 8
Exploration
There are 6 dolphins swimming around the boat.
Complete the story in two different ways.
Solve your problems or share with a partner and solve your partner's problems.
Solution
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Problem 9
Exploration
Tell a story problem that goes with each drawing.
Solution
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Problem 10
Exploration
These three story problems are not finished yet.
Finish the story problems with your own questions.
Then solve the story problems you made.

Noah had 4 erasers.
Clare gave him 3 erasers. 
Tyler had 3 pencils.
Tyler found 2 more pencils. 
Elena had 6 markers.
She lost 1 of her markers.
Solution
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Section C: Addition and Subtraction Expressions
Problem 1
There are 5 red apples in the bowl.
Lin puts 3 green apples in the bowl.
How many apples are in the bowl?
Circle the expression that matches the story problem.
\(5 + 3\)
\(5  3\)
\(8  5\)
Solution
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Problem 2
Draw a line from each expression to the matching drawing.
Solution
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Problem 3
Find the value of each expression.
Show your thinking using objects, drawings, numbers, or words.
\(3 + 5\)
\(7  1\)
Solution
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Problem 4
Find the value of each expression.
Show your thinking using objects, drawings, numbers, or words.
\(5 + 0\)
\(5 + 1\)
\(6 + 0\)
\(6 + 1\)
Solution
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Problem 5
Exploration
Circle the expression that shows 8.
\(1 + 6\)
\(5 + 3\)
\(6 + 3\)
What other expressions can you find that show 8?
Solution
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Problem 6
Exploration
Tell a story that this picture might represent.
Solution
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