# Lesson 16

Multipliquemos números más grandes que 20

## Warm-up: Conversación numérica: Tres multiplicado por algunos números (10 minutes)

### Narrative

This Number Talk encourages students to think about the multiplication of one-digit numbers and multiples of 10 and to rely on place value to mentally solve problems. The strategies elicited here will be helpful later in the lesson when students multiply numbers larger than 20.

### Launch

• Display one expression.
• “Hagan una señal cuando tengan una respuesta y puedan explicar cómo la obtuvieron” // “Give me a signal when you have an answer and can explain how you got it.”
• 1 minute: quiet think time

### Activity

• Keep expressions and work displayed.
• Repeat with each expression.

### Student Facing

Encuentra mentalmente el valor de cada expresión.

• $$3 \times 10$$
• $$3 \times 20$$
• $$3 \times 50$$
• $$3 \times 25$$

### Activity Synthesis

• “¿Cómo les ayudaron los tres primeros problemas a resolver el último problema?” // “How did the first three problems help you solve the last problem?” (Since I knew $$3 \times 20$$ was 60, I just added $$3 \times 5$$ to that by adding 15. I broke $$3 \times 25$$ into $$3 \times 10$$, $$3 \times 10$$, and $$3 \times 5$$ to make it easier to multiply. Since 25 is half of 50, I took half of  $$3 \times 50$$ to find $$3 \times 25$$, and half of 150 is 75.)

## Activity 1: $4 \times 23$, representado (15 minutes)

### Narrative

Previously, students multiplied two factors where one factor was a whole number and the other a teen number. The purpose of this activity is for students to make sense of multiplication of a one-digit number and a two-digit number greater than 20. Students analyze representations used to find $$4 \times 23$$ and articulate reasons for using strategies that are based on the distributive property and place value to find products (MP7). Along the way, they see that decomposing the two-digit factors into tens and ones is particularly helpful for multiplying. They also reinforce what they know about the connections between area diagrams and multiplication expressions.

MLR8 Discussion Supports. Before partner work, remind students to use words such as decompose, tens, and ones.

### Required Materials

Materials to Gather

Materials to Copy

• Centimeter Grid Paper - Standard

### Launch

• Groups of 2
• “Tómense un minuto para entender las formas como Clare y Andre representaron $$4 \times 23$$” // “Take a minute to make sense of how Clare and Andre represented $$4 \times 23$$.”
• 1 minute: quiet think time

### Activity

• “Ahora, con su compañero, completen los dos primeros problemas sobre $$4 \times 23$$” // “Now, work with your partner to complete the first two problems about $$4 \times 23$$.”
• 8–10 minutes: partner work time
• Monitor for the diagrams that students choose in Diego’s problem and for their explanations.
• Pause for a discussion. Invite students to share their responses.
• If not mentioned by students, clarify that all diagrams can be used to multiply 4 and 23, but not all are equally practical.
• Select a student to explain why diagram D might be more productive than the other diagrams.
• “Ahora completen el último problema individualmente” // “Now, work independently to complete the last problem.”
• 2–3 minutes: independent work time

### Student Facing

1. Estas son las formas en las que Clare y Andre representaron $$4 \times 23$$.

1. ¿Cómo muestra cada diagrama $$4 \times 23$$?
2. ¿Cómo podríamos usar el diagrama de Clare para encontrar el valor de $$4 \times 23$$?
3. ¿Cómo podríamos usar el diagrama de Andre para encontrar el valor de $$4 \times 23$$?
2. Diego trató de partir o dividir un diagrama de varias maneras para poder encontrar el valor de $$4 \times 23$$.

1. ¿Qué observas sobre los números de sus diagramas?
2. ¿Cuál diagrama usarías para encontrar el valor de $$4 \times 23$$? Explica tu razonamiento.
3. Encuentra el valor de $$3 \times 28$$. Muestra cómo pensaste. Usa diagramas, símbolos u otras representaciones.

### Student Response

If students choose a diagram in the second problem that doesn't help them find the product of $$4\times23$$, consider asking:

• “Dime cómo escogiste cuál diagrama usar para encontrar el valor de $$4\times23$$” // “Tell me about how you chose which diagram you would use to find the value of $$4\times23$$.”
• “¿Hay algún otro diagrama que haga más fácil encontrar el valor de $$4\times23$$? ¿De qué manera lo hace más fácil?” // “Is there another diagram that would make finding the value of $$4\times23$$ easier? How would it make it easier?”

### Activity Synthesis

• “¿Qué representaciones usaron en la última pregunta para mostrar $$3 \times 28$$? ¿Cómo les ayudaron las representaciones a encontrar el producto?” // “What representations did you use in the last question to show $$3 \times 28$$? How did they help you find the product?” (Base-ten blocks helped me break the 28 into tens and ones. A diagram with a grid helped me break 28 into smaller numbers. A diagram with no grid helped me think about the numbers as I labeled it without worrying about all the little squares.)

## Activity 2: Unos productos bonitos (15 minutes)

### Narrative

The purpose of this activity is for students to continue to multiply single-digit whole numbers and numbers greater than 20. The opening problem encourages students to apply place value reasoning (decomposing two-digit numbers into tens and ones) and properties of operations to reason numerically about products. Because one of the factors is small, however, students may use repeated addition (such as $$43 + 43$$) to find subsequent products. In the synthesis, emphasize strategies that are based on place value, connecting the numerical expressions with diagrams as needed.

### Required Materials

Materials to Gather

Materials to Copy

• Centimeter Grid Paper - Standard

### Launch

• Groups of 2
• “Miren cómo Mai empezó a multiplicar $$2 \times 37$$. Después, hablen con su compañero sobre por qué creen que Mai decidió empezar a multiplicar de esta forma” // “Take a look at how Mai started to multiply $$2 \times 37$$. Then, talk to your partner about why you think Mai decided to start multiplying this way.” (Thirty-seven is a large number to multiply, so she broke it into tens and ones. $$2 \times 30$$ shows the multiplication of the tens.)
• 1 minute: partner discussion
• Share responses.

### Activity

• “Trabajen individualmente durante unos minutos. Después, compartan sus respuestas con su compañero” // “Take a few minutes to work independently on the activity. Afterwards, share your responses with your partner.”
• 5 minutes: independent work time
• 5 minutes: partner work time

### Student Facing

1. Para encontrar el valor de $$2 \times 37$$, Mai empezó escribiendo esta ecuación:

$$2 \times 30 = 60$$

Describe o muestra lo que haría Mai para terminar de encontrar el valor de $$2 \times 37$$.

2. Encuentra el valor de cada producto. Muestra cómo razonaste.

1. $$3 \times 32$$
2. $$2 \times 43$$
3. $$4 \times 22$$
4. $$3 \times 29$$

### Student Response

If a student says they don’t know how to start the problem, consider asking:

• “¿Qué harías si los factores fueran 3 y 10? ¿Qué hay de 3 y 20?” // “What would you do if the factors were 3 and 10? What about 3 and 20?”
• “¿Cómo podrías usar bloques en base diez o diagramas para ayudarte a encontrar estos productos?” // “How could you use base-ten blocks or diagrams to help you find these products?”

### Activity Synthesis

• Invite 1–2 students to share their responses and reasoning. Display or record their work for all to see.
• Discuss responses that highlight use of place value and properties of operations. $$4\times 22$$, for instance, can be found using the associative property ($$2 \times (2 \times 22)$$ or distributive property ($$4 \times 20 + 4 \times 2$$).
• Consider using diagrams or base-ten blocks to reinforce the meaning of expressions as needed.

## Activity 3: Juguemos “Cerca de 100, multiplicación” [OPTIONAL] (10 minutes)

### Narrative

The purpose of this activity is for students to play a game in which they are able to apply the strategies they’ve learned for multiplying teen numbers and numbers over 20. Students use digits to create an expression that has a value as close to 100 as possible. The first game includes teen numbers and the second game includes numbers over 20.

This activity is optional because it provides extra practice for multiplying by factors that are teen numbers and factors greater than 20. Depending on the time available, students can play 1 or 2 games.

Engagement: Develop Effort and Persistence. Check in and provide each group with feedback that encourages collaboration and community
Supports accessibility for: Social-Emotional Functioning

### Required Materials

Materials to Copy

• Number Cards (0-10)

### Required Preparation

• Create a set of cards from the blackline master for each group of 2.

### Launch

• Groups of 2
• Distribute one set of pre-cut cards to each group of students.
• “Vamos a jugar un juego llamado ‘Cerca de 100’. Leamos las instrucciones y juguemos 1 ronda juntos” // “We’re going to play a game called Close to 100. Let’s read through the directions together and play 1 round together.”
• Play a round against the class, displaying the numbers from the cards and thinking through decisions aloud.

### Activity

• “Ahora van a jugar una partida de ‘Cerca de 100’ con su compañero. La partida tendrá 5 rondas” // “Now, you will play a game of Close to 100 with your partner. The game will have 5 rounds.”
• 5–7 minutes: partner game time
• If time allows, have students play the second game of Close to 100. Inform students that the numbers are different in the second game.

### Student Facing

Juega “Cerca de 100, multiplicación” con un compañero.
1. Pon las tarjetas boca abajo.
3. Cada jugador escoge 2 de sus tarjetas para completar la expresión y hacer que el valor esté lo más cerca posible de 100. Escribe los 2 dígitos y el producto.
4. El jugador que esté más cerca de 100, gana esa ronda.
5. Juega 5 rondas. El jugador que gane la mayoría de rondas, gana la partida.

Partida 1

Ronda 1

$$\boxed{\phantom{\frac{00}{00}}} \times 1 \ \boxed{\phantom{\frac{00}{00}}}= \underline{\hspace{1 cm}}$$

Ronda 2

$$\boxed{\phantom{\frac{00}{00}}} \times 1 \ \boxed{\phantom{\frac{00}{00}}}= \underline{\hspace{1 cm}}$$

Ronda 3

$$\boxed{\phantom{\frac{00}{00}}} \times 1 \ \boxed{\phantom{\frac{00}{00}}}= \underline{\hspace{1 cm}}$$

Ronda 4

$$\boxed{\phantom{\frac{00}{00}}} \times 1 \ \boxed{\phantom{\frac{00}{00}}}= \underline{\hspace{1 cm}}$$

Ronda 5

$$\boxed{\phantom{\frac{00}{00}}} \times 1 \ \boxed{\phantom{\frac{00}{00}}}= \underline{\hspace{1 cm}}$$

Partida 2

Ronda 1

$$\boxed{\phantom{\frac{00}{00}}} \times 2 \ \boxed{\phantom{\frac{00}{00}}}= \underline{\hspace{1 cm}}$$

Ronda 2

$$\boxed{\phantom{\frac{00}{00}}} \times 2 \ \boxed{\phantom{\frac{00}{00}}}= \underline{\hspace{1 cm}}$$

Ronda 3

$$\boxed{\phantom{\frac{00}{00}}} \times 2 \ \boxed{\phantom{\frac{00}{00}}}= \underline{\hspace{1 cm}}$$

Ronda 4

$$\boxed{\phantom{\frac{00}{00}}} \times 2 \ \boxed{\phantom{\frac{00}{00}}}= \underline{\hspace{1 cm}}$$

Ronda 5

$$\boxed{\phantom{\frac{00}{00}}} \times 2 \ \boxed{\phantom{\frac{00}{00}}}= \underline{\hspace{1 cm}}$$

### Activity Synthesis

• “¿Qué estrategias les ayudaron cuando jugaron ‘Cerca de 100’?” // “What were some strategies that were helpful as you played Close to 100?” (I used rounding to think about how large the product would be. I multiplied the tens and ones, then combined them to find the product.)

## Lesson Synthesis

### Lesson Synthesis

“En las últimas lecciones, vimos y usamos diferentes estrategias para multiplicar números más grandes” // “In the past few lessons, we saw and used different strategies to multiply larger numbers.”

“¿Cuáles fueron algunas de esas estrategias?” // “What were some of those strategies?” (Using base-ten blocks, drawing gridded and ungridded diagrams, decomposing the tens and ones and multiplying them separately or using easier multiplication facts.)

“¿Qué estrategias de multiplicación prefieren usar para encontrar el valor de un producto como $$3 \times 24$$?” // “What strategies for multiplying do you prefer for finding the value of a product such as $$3 \times 24$$?” (I like breaking the larger factor into smaller parts to make it easier to multiply.)