Lesson 16
Addition and Subtraction
Warmup: Number Talk: Subtracting Decimals (10 minutes)
Narrative
The purpose of this number talk is to find the value of subtraction expressions with decimal numbers which encourage adding on as a strategy. While the first two expressions can be found readily by taking away, finding the difference or adding on to the smaller number is an effective strategy. The second pair of expressions also encourage adding on or compensation strategies. Students will have an opportunity to use these strategies in the lesson as they continue to add and subtract decimals.
Launch
 Display one expression.
 “Give me a signal when you have an answer and can explain how you got it.”
 1 minute: quiet think time
Activity
 Record answers and strategy.
 Keep expressions and work displayed.
 Repeat with each expression.
Student Facing
Find the value of each expression mentally.
 \(2.57  2.55\)
 \(2.57  2.49\)
 \(2.57  0.99\)
 \(2.57  0.59\)
Student Response
Teachers with a valid work email address can click here to register or sign in for free access to Student Response.
Activity Synthesis
 “What strategy did you use to find the value of \(2.57  0.99\)?”
 I subtracted 1.57 to get 1 and then one more hundredth to get 0.99.
 I added 0.01 to 0.99 to get 1 and then added 1.57 more to get 2.57.
Activity 1: What's the Difference? (15 minutes)
Narrative
The purpose of this activity is for students to find the value of various decimal differences. Most of the numbers do not have the same number of decimal digits so students need to subtract carefully if they make vertical calculations, making sure to align place values correctly (MP6). Students may use the standard algorithm or they may choose a different technique. Some of the differences are designed to bring out other techniques such as adding on or compensation.
Supports accessibility for: Organization, Conceptual Processing, Language
Launch
 Groups of 2
Activity
 5 minutes: independent work time
 2 minutes: partner discussion
 Monitor for students who
 use the standard algorithm correctly for each calculation
 use other techniques such as adding on or subtracting in different ways by place value
Student Facing
Find the value of each expression. Explain or show your reasoning.

\(7.35  2.6\)

\(100.8  6.03\)

\(26.5  13.62\)

\(465  463.14\)
Student Response
Teachers with a valid work email address can click here to register or sign in for free access to Student Response.
Advancing Student Thinking
If students do not find the correct value of a difference, ask, “Which 2 whole numbers will the value of the difference be between?”
Activity Synthesis
 Display expression: \(100.8  6.03\)
 “How did you find the value of the difference?”
 I used the standard algorithm.
 I first took the 6 from 100 and then the 0.03 from 0.8.
 Display expression: \(465  463.14\)
 “How did you find the value of this difference?”
 I used the standard algorithm.
 I added on to 463.14 since they are so close.
 “How are the different strategies you used to subtract the same? How are they different?” (They all make sure to use the right place value for each digit. The standard algorithm starts from the smallest place value and then breaks up larger place values when needed. The other strategies subtract an amount that you can do mentally or use addition.)
Activity 2: Sums and Differences (10 minutes)
Narrative
 adding or subtracting by place value
 using the standard algorithm
 adding on in order to calculate a difference
Launch
 Groups of 2
Student Facing
Find the value of each expression. Explain or show your reasoning.
 \(36.51  4.3\)
 \(100 + 31.05\)
 \(100  31.05\)
 \(266.43 + 75.9\)
Student Response
Teachers with a valid work email address can click here to register or sign in for free access to Student Response.
Activity Synthesis
 Invite students to share how they found the value of the expression \(36.51  4.3\).
 “Why is subtracting by place value a good strategy for this expression?” (I can take 4 from 6 and 3 tenths from 5 tenths and that gives me 32.21.)
 “Does the standard algorithm also work?” (Yes, you just need to make sure to subtract ones from ones and tenths from tenths.)
 Display image of calculation of \(36.51  4.3\) with the standard algorithm from student solution.
 Invite students to share how they found the value of the expression \(100  31.05\).
 “Did anyone use the standard algorithm?” (I tried but there was a lot of borrowing so I decided to use a different strategy.)
 Display image of calculation of \(100  31.05\) with the standard algorithm from student solution.
 “The standard algorithm always works to find sums and differences but sometimes the numbers make other methods more efficient.”
Activity 3: Subtraction with Larger Numbers [OPTIONAL] (20 minutes)
Narrative
The purpose of this activity is for students to find the value of subtraction expressions using a strategy of their choice. The standard algorithm which students learned in a previous activity will always work to successfully to calculate a difference but some of the problems are deliberately chosen to encourage other techniques such as adding on or compensation. If students choose to use the standard algorithm to calculate the differences, they will need to pay close attention to place value as several of the differences have one decimal with only tenths while the other has hundredths (MP6).
Launch
 Groups of 2
Activity
 10 minutes: independent work time
 5 minutes: partner discussion
Student Facing
Find the value of each expression.
 \(43.14  18.6\)
 \(73.3  52.99\)
 \(128.44  62.57\)
 \(261.25  260.7\)
Student Response
Teachers with a valid work email address can click here to register or sign in for free access to Student Response.
Activity Synthesis
 Display expression \(43.14  18.6\)
 “What estimate would you make for the value of this expression?” (about 20, about 25)
 Invite students to share their strategies and solutions.
 “Why did you use the standard algorithm?” (The numbers are complicated so I can't see what the difference is.)
 “Did your solution make sense, based on your estimate?” (Yes, it is between 24 and 25.)
 Display expression: \(261.25  260.7\)
 Invite students to share their strategies and solutions.
 “Can you find this difference mentally? How?” (Yes, I can add 0.3 to 260.7 and that gives me 261 and then I need 0.25 more. That's 5 tenths and 5 hundredths so 0.55.)
Lesson Synthesis
Lesson Synthesis
“We found sums and differences of decimals using many techniques.”
Display expression: \(36.51  4.3\)
“What are some different methods that you can use to find this difference?” (I can subtract 4 ones from 6 ones and 4 tenths from 5 tenths. I can add on to 4.3, first I added 32, and then 2 tenths and then 1 hundredth. I can use the algorithm.)
“What is your favorite strategy?” (My favorite strategies are the ones I can do mentally, like counting up or using friendly numbers.)
Cooldown: Add and Subtract Decimals (5 minutes)
CoolDown
Teachers with a valid work email address can click here to register or sign in for free access to CoolDowns.
Student Section Summary
Student Facing
In this section, we learned that we can use the same strategies and algorithms we used to add and subtract whole numbers to add and subtract decimals.
We learned that it is helpful to estimate a sum before we solve. For example, the sum below is going to be close to \(620 + 70\) or 690.
We also learned that it is important to make sure the places are aligned when we add and subtract.
We can also estimate that the value of the difference will be about \(620  70\) or 550.