Lesson 16
Multiply Numbers Larger than 20
Warmup: Number Talk: Three Times Some Numbers (10 minutes)
Narrative
This Number Talk encourages students to think about the multiplication of onedigit numbers and multiples of 10 and to rely on place value to mentally solve problems. The strategies elicited here will be helpful later in the lesson when students multiply numbers larger than 20.
Launch
 Display one expression.
 “Give me a signal when you have an answer and can explain how you got it.”
 1 minute: quiet think time
Activity
 Record answers and strategy.
 Keep expressions and work displayed.
 Repeat with each expression.
Student Facing
Find the value of each expression mentally.
 \(3 \times 10\)
 \(3 \times 20\)
 \(3 \times 50\)
 \(3 \times 25\)
Student Response
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Activity Synthesis
 “How did the first three problems help you solve the last problem?” (Since I knew \(3 \times 20\) was 60, I just added \(3 \times 5\) to that by adding 15. I broke \(3 \times 25\) into \(3 \times 10\), \(3 \times 10\), and \(3 \times 5\) to make it easier to multiply. Since 25 is half of 50, I took half of \(3 \times 50\) to find \(3 \times 25\), and half of 150 is 75.)
Activity 1: $4 \times 23$, Represented (15 minutes)
Narrative
Previously, students multiplied two factors where one factor was a whole number and the other a teen number. The purpose of this activity is for students to make sense of multiplication of a onedigit number and a twodigit number greater than 20. Students analyze representations used to find \(4 \times 23\) and articulate reasons for using strategies that are based on the distributive property and place value to find products (MP7). Along the way, they see that decomposing the twodigit factors into tens and ones is particularly helpful for multiplying. They also reinforce what they know about the connections between area diagrams and multiplication expressions.
Advances: Speaking, Representing
Required Materials
Launch
 Groups of 2
 “Take a minute to make sense of how Clare and Andre represented \(4 \times 23\).”
 1 minute: quiet think time
 Give students access to grid paper and baseten blocks.
Activity
 “Now, work with your partner to complete the first two problems about \(4 \times 23\).”
 8–10 minutes: partner work time
 Monitor for the diagrams that students choose in Diego’s problem and for their explanations.
 Pause for a discussion. Invite students to share their responses.
 If not mentioned by students, clarify that all diagrams can be used to multiply 4 and 23, but not all are equally practical.
 Select a student to explain why diagram D might be more productive than the other diagrams.
 “Now, work independently to complete the last problem.”
 2–3 minutes: independent work time
Student Facing

Here is how Clare and Andre represented \(4 \times 23\).
 How does each diagram show \(4 \times 23\)?
 How could we use Clare’s diagram to find the value of \(4 \times 23\)?
 How could we use Andre’s diagram to find the value of \(4 \times 23\)?

Diego tried different ways to partition or split a diagram to help him find the value of \(4 \times 23\).
 What do you notice about the numbers in his diagrams?
 Which diagram would you use to find the value of \(4 \times 23\)? Explain your reasoning.
 Find the value of \(3 \times 28\). Show your thinking using diagrams, symbols, or other representations.
Student Response
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Advancing Student Thinking
If students choose a diagram in the second problem that doesn't help them find the product of \(4\times23\), consider asking:
 “Tell me about how you chose which diagram you would use to find the value of \(4\times23\).”
 “Is there another diagram that would make finding the value of \(4\times23\) easier? How would it make it easier?”
Activity Synthesis
 “What representations did you use in the last question to show \(3 \times 28\)? How did they help you find the product?” (Baseten blocks helped me break the 28 into tens and ones. A diagram with a grid helped me break 28 into smaller numbers. A diagram with no grid helped me think about the numbers as I labeled it without worrying about all the little squares.)
Activity 2: Some Fine Products (15 minutes)
Narrative
The purpose of this activity is for students to continue to multiply singledigit whole numbers and numbers greater than 20. The opening problem encourages students to apply place value reasoning (decomposing twodigit numbers into tens and ones) and properties of operations to reason numerically about products. Because one of the factors is small, however, students may use repeated addition (such as \(43 + 43\)) to find subsequent products. In the synthesis, emphasize strategies that are based on place value, connecting the numerical expressions with diagrams as needed.
Required Materials
Launch
 Groups of 2
 “Take a look at how Mai started to multiply \(2 \times 37\). Then, talk to your partner about why you think Mai decided to start multiplying this way.” (Thirtyseven is a large number to multiply, so she broke it into tens and ones. \(2 \times 30\) shows the multiplication of the tens.)
 1 minute: partner discussion
 Share responses.
 Give students access to grid paper and baseten blocks.
Activity
 “Take a few minutes to work independently on the activity. Afterwards, share your responses with your partner.”
 5 minutes: independent work time
 5 minutes: partner work time
Student Facing

To find the value of \(2 \times 37\), Mai started by writing this equation:
\(2 \times 30 = 60\)
Describe or show what Mai would do to finish finding the value of \(2 \times 37\).

Find the value of each product. Show your reasoning.
 \(3 \times 32\)
 \(2 \times 43\)
 \(4 \times 22\)
 \(3 \times 29\)
Student Response
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Advancing Student Thinking
If a student says they don’t know how to start the problem, consider asking:
 “What would you do if the factors were 3 and 10? What about 3 and 20?”
 “How could you use baseten blocks or diagrams to help you find these products?”
Activity Synthesis
 Invite 1–2 students to share their responses and reasoning. Display or record their work for all to see.
 Discuss responses that highlight use of place value and properties of operations. \(4\times 22\), for instance, can be found using the associative property (\(2 \times (2 \times 22)\) or distributive property (\(4 \times 20 + 4 \times 2\)).
 Consider using diagrams or baseten blocks to reinforce the meaning of expressions as needed.
Activity 3: Play Close to 100, Multiplication [OPTIONAL] (10 minutes)
Narrative
The purpose of this activity is for students to play a game in which they are able to apply the strategies they’ve learned for multiplying teen numbers and numbers over 20. Students use digits to create an expression that has a value as close to 100 as possible. The first game includes teen numbers and the second game includes numbers over 20.
This activity is optional because it provides extra practice for multiplying by factors that are teen numbers and factors greater than 20. Depending on the time available, students can play 1 or 2 games.
Supports accessibility for: SocialEmotional Functioning
Required Materials
Materials to Copy
 Number Cards (010)
Required Preparation
 Create a set of cards from the blackline master for each group of 2.
Launch
 Groups of 2
 Distribute one set of precut cards to each group of students.
 “We’re going to play a game called Close to 100. Let’s read through the directions together and play 1 round together.”
 Play a round against the class, displaying the numbers from the cards and thinking through decisions aloud.
Activity
 “Now, you will play a game of Close to 100 with your partner. The game will have 5 rounds.”
 5–7 minutes: partner game time
 If time allows, have students play the second game of Close to 100. Inform students that the numbers are different in the second game.
Student Facing
 Place the cards face down.
 Each player draws 4 cards.
 Each player chooses 2 cards to complete the expression to make a value as close to 100 as possible. Write the 2 digits and the product.
 Player closest to 100 wins.
 Play 5 rounds. Player who wins the most rounds wins.
Game 1
Round 1
\(\boxed{\phantom{\frac{00}{00}}} \times 1 \ \boxed{\phantom{\frac{00}{00}}}= \underline{\hspace{1 cm}}\)
Round 2
\(\boxed{\phantom{\frac{00}{00}}} \times 1 \ \boxed{\phantom{\frac{00}{00}}}= \underline{\hspace{1 cm}}\)
Round 3
\(\boxed{\phantom{\frac{00}{00}}} \times 1 \ \boxed{\phantom{\frac{00}{00}}}= \underline{\hspace{1 cm}}\)
Round 4
\(\boxed{\phantom{\frac{00}{00}}} \times 1 \ \boxed{\phantom{\frac{00}{00}}}= \underline{\hspace{1 cm}}\)
Round 5
\(\boxed{\phantom{\frac{00}{00}}} \times 1 \ \boxed{\phantom{\frac{00}{00}}}= \underline{\hspace{1 cm}}\)
Game 2
Round 1
\(\boxed{\phantom{\frac{00}{00}}} \times 2 \ \boxed{\phantom{\frac{00}{00}}}= \underline{\hspace{1 cm}}\)
Round 2
\(\boxed{\phantom{\frac{00}{00}}} \times 2 \ \boxed{\phantom{\frac{00}{00}}}= \underline{\hspace{1 cm}}\)
Round 3
\(\boxed{\phantom{\frac{00}{00}}} \times 2 \ \boxed{\phantom{\frac{00}{00}}}= \underline{\hspace{1 cm}}\)
Round 4
\(\boxed{\phantom{\frac{00}{00}}} \times 2 \ \boxed{\phantom{\frac{00}{00}}}= \underline{\hspace{1 cm}}\)
Round 5
\(\boxed{\phantom{\frac{00}{00}}} \times 2 \ \boxed{\phantom{\frac{00}{00}}}= \underline{\hspace{1 cm}}\)
Student Response
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Activity Synthesis
 “What were some strategies that were helpful as you played Close to 100?” (I used rounding to think about how large the product would be. I multiplied the tens and ones, then combined them to find the product.)
Lesson Synthesis
Lesson Synthesis
“In the past few lessons, we saw and used different strategies to multiply larger numbers.”
“What were some of those strategies?” (Using baseten blocks, drawing gridded and ungridded diagrams, decomposing the tens and ones and multiplying them separately or using easier multiplication facts.)
“What strategies for multiplying do you prefer for finding the value of a product such as \(3 \times 24\)?” (I like breaking the larger factor into smaller parts to make it easier to multiply.)
Cooldown: Multiply Numbers Greater than 20 (5 minutes)
CoolDown
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